low infrastructure investment. Shuffling is needed to randomly change the execution environment and is achieved by “hot” shuffling of multiple functionally equivalent, behaviorally different software versions (code implementation) at runtime (e.g., the software task can have multiple versions where each version can be a different algorithm implemented in different programming language running on different computing systems). 22, C. Weinhardt, S. Luckner, and J. Stober, Eds. Wenhong Tian, Yong Zhao, in Optimized Cloud Resource Management and Scheduling, 2015. For the, A Design Methodology for Developing Resilient Cloud Services, Rajkumar Buyya, ... S. Thamarai Selvi, in, Cloud Computing Uncovered: A Research Landscape, Open source semantic web infrastructure for managing IoT resources in the Cloud, Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are nowadays two of the most prominent and popular ICT paradigms that are expected to shape the next era of computing. True B. The first application is the leak detection application from before, and uses data from sensors S1 and S4 to affect the state of the valve actuator A2. So, cloud computing is a paradigm, where the heavy lifting of maintenance of hardware/ software is done by the cloud providers and the users only need to worry about the application logic. Cloud Computing is the future for years to come, if not for being a cutting-edge technology, then for the benefits it has yielded to the business and society through its promises of a smarter planet and a green environment (i.e., by reducing organization’s greenhouse-gas emissions). E. Elmroth, F. M’arquezy, D. Henriksson, D. Ferrera, R. Buyya, S. Pandey, C. Vecchiola, Cloudbus toolkit for market-oriented cloud computing, in Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUDCOM 09), (Beijing, 2009), pp. Indeed, in the previous example, if we perform the valve actuation calculations inside the network we are able to not only reduce the delay in actuating the valve, but also decrease the amount of information that is communicated to the cloud, freeing the communication medium. (2010), N. Kho, Content in the cloud. These are distributed systems and its peripherals, virtualization, web 2.0, service orientation, and utility computing. This is a preview of subscription content, K. Xiong, H. Perros, Service performance and analysis in cloud computing, in, Y. The concept of Cloud Computing came into existence in the year 1950 with implementation of mainframe computers, accessible via thin/static clients. Security and legislation are two of the challenging aspects of cloud computing that are beyond the technical sphere. We believe such hybrid approaches will be essential to allow smart city CPS applications to both scale and be maintainable and we should start considering these problems when designing development environments for them. A. D. Armstrong, and K. Djemame, Towards quality of service in the cloud, in Proceedings of 25th UK Performance Engineering Workshop, (Leeds, 2009), Inter-cooperative Collective Intelligence: Techniques and Applications, Department of Scientific Computing, Faculty of Computer and Information Science, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Informatics and Computer Science, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35016-0_2. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Comput. (2009), M. Armbrust, A. Thus, we need to be able to provide strong guarantees in terms of the application’s behavior when needed. Parallel Distrib. Cloud Computing is emerging as a new paradigm that aims to deliver computing as a utility. On the left hand side we see a diagram of data transfer when all the data are being transferred to the cloud for analysis and processing, before being used to affect the actuators. Facing these challenges, computing paradigms are shifting from the centralized cloud computing to distributed edge computing. Secondly, we can imagine that the delay between reading sensor data from S1 and actuating A2 will be quite high as the data need to traverse the whole network and be processed in the cloud. (Groningen, The Netherlands, 2009), 201–206 (2009), D. Kondo, B. Javadi, P. Malecot, F. Cappello, amd D. Anderson, Cost-benefit analysis of cloud computing versus desktop grids, in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing (IPDPS 09), IEEE Computer Society Washington, 2009, pp. Thus, where to place a particular module of computation depends on the requirements for it, e.g., in terms of timeliness, redundancy, and accuracy. In recent years, there has been a research movement to do in-network processing in sensor networks (Kolcun and McCann, 2014), to optimize their functioning. Most IoT applications entail a large number of heterogeneous geographically distributed sensors. With such speedy progressing and emerging, it becomes crucial to understand all aspects about this technology. The research and scientific community will use the cloud to solve complex problems; Cloud Computing will unleash the productivity and innovation in all scientific fields. Moving more services to the edge. Aruba launched its Edge Services Platform (ESP) in June 2020 as an AI-powered, cloud … Admittedly, it will not be easy to accept an emerging new business-driven model but the new paradigm offers revolutionary processes. The computing continuum as a design principle for Internet of Things applications. Moreover, if nodes within the network are going to perform data processing for various stakeholders, we need to be able to ensure isolation between these various applications. It is rapidly changing the landscape of information technology, and ultimately turning the long-held promise of utility computing into a reality. However, before this stage, there will be a significant advancement in all the interleaving fields that affect Cloud Computing. Cloud Computing Book. However, this begs the question: How can we systematically incorporate the natural ecosystem and cloud autoscaling? 4 reviews The primary purpose of this book is to capture the state-of-the-art in Cloud Computing technologies and applications. We have not, however, changed the operation of the image processing application, as it requires more processing power than would be available in edge nodes. Presents the fundamental concepts of cloud computing, charting evolution from mainframe, cluster, grid, and utility computing Covers Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), from enabling technologies such as virtual machines and virtualized storage to sophisticated mechanisms for securely storing data in the cloud and managing virtual clusters However, data sharing prompted various security threats and concerns that have been imposed via ever-escalating phishing attacks using advanced deception. Not logged in Security in cloud computing is of major concern and a challenging research problem since it involves many interdependent tasks, including application layer firewalls, configuration management, alert monitoring and analysis, source code analysis, and user identity management. Here we minimize the communications range of the devices and instead of building ridged routing trees to multi-hop sensed data around or have each device send data directly to its sinks, we empower mobile devices to collect the data and relay it. Cloud computing is all about renting computing services. It also provides the high visibility required for collaboration across users and partners, by allowing resources to be accessed at anytime from anywhere when policies permit. Cloud applications Cloud computing is very attractive to the users: Economic reasons. Security: Many organizations have security concerns when it comes to adopting a cloud-computing … ), we can shift the attack surface and, consequently, evade attacks. Undoubtedly, stability and sustainability are among the most desirable attributes of cloud computing. Running one’s computing processes in someone else’s physical infrastructure [16]. However, when people encounter the definition of “cloud computing,” they are often puzzled or confused because there are so many different definitions. Moreover, the fact that most organizations have invested or are currently investing in cloud technologies and solutions, is sufficient to prove that this technology is not dying soon, at least until organizations harvest their return of investment on Cloud Computing. So we can now think of a continuum where data are processed and relayed (also a form of processing) from source devices via edge devices to the cloud. 24–44, W. Voorsluys, J. Broberg, S. Venugopal, and R. Buyya, Cost of virtual machine live migration in clouds: A performance evaluation, in Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing, (Beijing, 2009), pp. According to recent International Data Corporation (IDC) research, the total amount of digital information in the world reached 1 zettabyte in 2010. In Fig. We have implemented the applications on an IBM blade server with four blades, where each blade has 24 cores and can run several virtual machines. Security in cloud computing is of major concern and a challenging research problem since it involves many interdependent tasks … In the future, private clouds are expected to fade, while public and hybrid clouds will continue to be more popular. The information will be augmented with all the information sent from other devices to make smart decisions. It is essential for us to have the right definition out there. It preserves published data from being linked back to an individual. Syst. Cloud computing offers a rich mixture of different technologies, and harnessing them is a challenging engineering task. Yeo, S. Venugopal, J. Broberg, I. Brandic, Cloud Computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility. Their experimental results show that their proposed environment is resilient against attacks with less than 7% in overhead time. Actually, many e-commerce activities have been utilizing many cloud applications one way or the other. J. The most widely cited definition is, however, the one is published by the US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standard and Technology or NIST [21], which we will discuss later in the chapter. Finally, in terms of city applications, we need to be able to support applications that could have significant real world consequences, in terms of property damage, such as the pipe leak example, or even lives, if we think about automating the healthcare systems. This vision is what inspires the Cloud Computing Reference Model. Syst. A. Tikotekar, G. Vallee, T. Naughton, H. Ong, C. Engelmann, S. Scott, A. Filippi, P. McFedries, The cloud is the computer. The data relocation, which is a tradeoff between trustworthiness and utility, acts as a control input parameter. Experimental results demonstrate considerable utility enhancement as a function of a relatively small number of group relocations. Furthermore, cloud infrastructures could boost the computational capacities of IoT applications, given that several multisensor applications need to perform complex processing that is subject to timing and other QoS constraints. Finally, in the future Internet providers will start pushing for laws to protect the scarce Internet bandwidth and the notion of the “Metered Internet” will become the norm. Table 6.1 illustrates the benefits of explicitly considering stability and sustainability when autoscaling in the cloud. Today, cloud computing has quickly become a buzzword not only in the IT industry but also in other sectors, such as banking, finance, education, health, utilities, airlines, retail, real estate, and telecom. [13], there were over 22 different definitions in 2008 alone. cloud computing represents one of the most significant paradigms shifts in information technology (IT) history, due to an extension of sharing an application-hosting provider that has been around for many years, and was common in highly regulated vertical industries like … True B. Rev. 47. The Cloud Computing paradigm is still evolving. For the cloud computing paradigm to be fully adopted and effectively used, it is critical that the security mechanisms are robust and resilient to malicious faults and attacks. 825–830, J. Geelan, Twenty one experts define cloud computing. It will assist us in understanding, classifying, and applying different definitions of our goal. A larger cloud network can be built as either a layer 3 or layer 4 network. It is not just an incremental change. By that, the chapter provides a complete overview on the Cloud Computing and paves the way for further research in this area. Nevertheless, how autoscaling can improve the stability and sustainability of the cloud as a whole has not been explicitly studied in prior work. Comput. Some of the leading concepts which this book covers are Mobile Computational Offloading (MCO) and Cloud Assisted Mobile Augmentation (CMA) which helps to overcome the limitations (battery life and computational … In many cases, the computing nodes that form the infrastructure of computing clouds are commodity machines, as in the case of clusters. We also present our experimental results and evaluation of the RCS design methodology. The cloud takes care of scaling out and in and load balancing. Below are 3 different computing models, in context of cloud computing. In the future, Cloud Computing will focus more on mobility. Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) are nowadays two of the most prominent and popular ICT paradigms that are expected to shape the next era of computing. Centralized or monolithic computing: The computing done using a single computer, which is not part of any network is referred to as monolithic computing.In this type of computing the system makes use of only those resources which are in its access.Since there is only one user who is using a system at a given instance of time therefore the … There are major benefits and advantages that are driving the widespread adoption of the cloud computing paradigm: Easy access to resources: resources are offered as services and can be accessed over the internet. Fig. Below is the list of cloud computing book recommended by the top university in India.. Kai Hwang, Geoffrey C. Fox and Jack J. Dongarra, “Distributed and cloud computing from Parallel Processing to the Internet of Things”, Morgan Kaufmann, Elsevier, 2012. The advantage is an easy backup. Public cloud will be the dominant model for small organizations and end users, while hybrid clouds will be the solution for medium-size and large (non-provider) organizations. The book will also aim to identify potential research directions and technologies that will facilitate creation a global market-place of cloud computing services supporting scientific, industrial, business, and consumer applications. When people talk about the cloud-computing paradigm, they often have different purposes in mind. In this network we are running three different services, affecting different subsets of the nodes. … We advocate that the well-established ecological principles, theories, and models can provide rich source of inspiration to spontaneously improve the stability and sustainability of the cloud as a whole. Grid Computing Ripal Ranpara However, it is not merely a natural evolution of a single technology, but it is a hybrid-cross (intra-specific) between different technologies resulting in the next big thing, analogous to the liger, which is the hybrid-cross between a lion and a tigress. For example, mobile devices will be able to perform tasks that are impossible without powerful computation power such as video encoding, voice processing, and image processing. These technologies will have to take into account requirements that are essential for smart city CPS applications. In this chapter the authors present a methodology for designing resilient cloud services that is based on redundancy, diversity, shuffling, and autonomic management. Comparing autoscaling in the cloud with/without tackling stability and sustainability. • Cloud computing is a pay-per-use model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable and reliable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal consumer management effort or service provider interaction. We will be able to see smart medical diagnoses systems, automatic financial market brokers, and accurate climate-change forecasting. A. In this way, we should think of the whole network, from edge to cloud, as a programmable device and design technologies to facilitate this view when designing and deploying applications. 1–12. In this setting, we can imagine standard nodes delivering high-resolution sensor data for multiple parameters such that collecting all the available data in a cloud computing paradigm would be infeasible and cause congestion in the network. However, with virtualization technology in a cloud platform, different application environments can either be preloaded in VM images or deployed dynamically onto VM instances. The new cloud computing paradigm, with an unprecedented size of datacenter-level resource pools and on-demand resource provisioning, can offer much more to such systems, enabling scientific workflow solutions capable of addressing peta-scale scientific problems. On the right hand side we see a more balanced distribution, where we have eliminated some of the congestion by doing the computations for the leak detection application within the network. Shuffling is needed to randomly change the execution environment and is achieved by “hot” shuffling of multiple functionally equivalent, behaviorally different software versions at runtime. The benefits that organizations can obtain by adopting Cloud Computing are evident. Therefore, it is widely accepted that cyber resilient techniques are the most promising solutions to mitigate cyberattacks and change the game to advantage the defender over the attacker. By employing this cloud computing method, the computing, data storage, and mass information processing can be offloaded to the cloud servers while ensuring the reliability and availability of the application services. Some of the key elements that have to be taken into account are virtualization, scalability, dynamic provisioning, big datasets, and cost models. Elastic autoscaling in the cloud has been an increasingly important research topic since the emergence of cloud computing paradigm. Comput. Among others, stability and sustainability are the most desirable attributes in natural ecosystem and they have been studied by the ecologists for decades. These properties include self-awareness, self-adaptivity, and the ability to provide solutions for complex scenarios [17], e.g., resolving trade-offs. The cloud computing paradigm [1] realizes and promotes the delivery of hardware and software resources over the Internet, according to an on-demand utility-based model. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Inter-cooperative Collective Intelligence: Techniques and Applications Cite as. Not affiliated Therefore it is widely accepted that cyber resilient techniques are the most promising solutions to mitigate cyberattacks and to change the game to the advantage of the defender over the attacker. Systems such as Taverna [1], Kepler [2], Vistrails [3], Pegasus [4], Swift [5], and VIEW [6] have seen wide adoption in various disciplines such as physics, astronomy, bioinformatics, neuroscience, earth science, and social science. Future Gener. Cloud Computing paradigmBy Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah 1. Thus, privacy-preserving data mining has emerged as a new research avenue, where various algorithms are developed to anonymize the data to be mined. People often ask, “What does cloud computing really mean?” The common answer is again very tactful: “It is really dependent on what you mean.” The answer actually indicates the subjectiveness of the cloud definition and the broad spectrum of meanings for the cloud. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. GenBank [10], one of the largest DNA databases, already hosts over 120 billion bases and the number is expected to double every 9–12 months. C. Yeoa, S. Venugopalb, X. Chua, R. Buyya, Autonomic metered pricing for a utility computing service. Moving Target Defense (MTD) has been proposed as a mechanism to make it extremely difficult for an attacker to exploit existing vulnerabilities by varying the attack surface of the execution environment. As an emerging computing paradigm, cloud computing [12] is gaining tremendous momentum in both academia and industry: not long after Amazon opened its Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2) to the public, Google, IBM, and Microsoft all released their cloud platforms. True This model identifies three major market segments (and service offerings) for cloud computing: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). AbstractThis report which is based on the Cloud computing paradigm contains researched information on thetypes of cloud computing environments available and the associated advantages and disadvantagesof such a computing style. Cloud platforms can offer a vast amount of computing resources, as well as storage space for such applications, allowing scientific discoveries to be carried out on a much larger scale. We anticipate that the decision support as a service will have a significant impact on fields such as medicine, economy, and environmental science. Sun, J. According to the research of Luis M. Vaquero et al. Cloud computing not only provides the potential to solve larger-scale scientific problems, but also presents the opportunity to improve the performance/cost ratio. D. Ardagna, M. Trubianb, L. Zhangc, SLA based resource allocation policies in autonomic environments. Abstract: In the last few years, Internet of Things, Cloud computing, Edge computing, and Fog computing have gained a lot of attention in both industry and academia. The cloud will shape our life and make it easier and smarter. To provide a practical grasp of such concepts, we will use Aneka as a reference platform for illustrating cloud systems and application programming environments. Commun. Cloud computing provides a much larger room for the trade-off between performance and cost. Scientific workflow systems have been formerly applied over a number of execution environments, such as workstations, clusters/grids, and supercomputers. Cloud computing means four pillars: applications, platforms, infrastructure and enabling services [17]. The performance of each K-anonymity's iteration is measured to decide the feasibility of data relocation, where data rows are changed into small groups of tuples. R. Buyya, C.S. It became feasible to share confidential data records through CC for further analysis and mining. Early IoT applications are based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies, and deliver tangible benefits in several areas, including manufacturing, logistics, trade, retail, and green/sustainable applications, as well as in other sectors. Security in cloud computing is of major concern and a challenging research problem since it involves many interdependent tasks including application layer firewalls, configuration management, alert monitoring and analysis, source code analysis, and user identity management. Yet, the protection and truthfulness potency of this generalized technique is limited to a tiny output space, and often leads to unacceptable utility loss in cases of strict privacy requirements. 1. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The cloud computing paradigm emerged as a result of the maturity and convergence of several of its supporting models and technologies, namely distributed computing, virtualization, Web 2.0, service orientation, and utility computing. These reference frameworks will motivate hesitated organizations to adopt Cloud Computing. There will also be new frameworks that allow smart dynamic elasticity, and ensure service high availability at the enterprise level, which will depend on different cloud providers. The scientific community is also facing a data deluge [8] coming experiments, simulations, sensors, and satellites. 2. Social network data is also tremendous: each month, the Facebook community creates more than 30 billion pieces of content ranging from web links, news, stories, blog posts, and notes to videos and photos [7]. Martins, J.A. N. Kefalakis, ... J. Soldatos, in Internet of Things, 2016. Dropbox, Facebook, Gmail. To surmount this limitation, we propose a hybrid K-anonymity data relocation algorithm. 46. Redundancy is used to tolerate attacks if any redundant version or resource is compromised. Cloud-based workflow applications can allocate resources accordingly with the number of nodes at each workflow stage instead of reserving a fixed number of resources upfront. Nevertheless, advances in science instrumentation and network technologies are posing new challenges to our workflow systems in both data scale and application complexity. This makes it difficult for researchers new to this area to get a concrete picture of these paradigms. A. The third application, visualizing temperature sensor data on a map, merely requires the output from sensor S3. False. Cloud Computing has lots of areas to be investigated. Oftentimes, … The diversity is to use to avoid the software monoculture problem where one attack vector can successfully attack many instances of the same software module. In this chapter, we present an end-to-end approach that addresses the integration of Swift, an SWFMS that has a broad application in grids and supercomputers, with the OpenNebula cloud platform. We are going to see more applications that connect to the cloud datacenters, from smartphones, vehicles, and TVs, to utilize the cloud capabilities. Ans: B. This book is one of its kinds as it covers all aspects of MCC. In the future, there will be a need for protocols and mechanisms to address these difficulties. This in our opinion will promote what we call the “Decision Support as a Service” industry. 254–265. However, a clear and neat definition of these computing paradigms and their correlation is hard to find in the literature. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. However, this does not provide an efficient solution for the problem. Complementary to the in-networking approach is network off-loading. Popular search engines such as Google and Bing can generate multiple terabytes of search logs every day. Throughout the book, we explore different definitions, interpretations, and implementations of this idea. At the same time, the IoT paradigm relies on the identification and use of a large number of heterogeneous physical and virtual objects (ie, both physical and virtual representations), which are connected to the Internet [2]. In its early stages, the Cloud was used to express the empty space between the end user and the provider. The massive cloud computing technology was enabled by the likeness & trend of the Internet & the growth of some famous multinational companies. By turning IT assets into utilities, it allows organizations to reduce operational costs and increase revenues. The, Network-Wide Programming Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems, These issues are compounded when we consider the scalability of CPS to a city scale. Depending on the type of computing resources delivered via the cloud, cloud services take different forms, such as Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), Platform as a service (PaaS), Software as a service (SaaS), Storage as a service (STaaS), and more. The question is where do we carry out processing, with what nodes and how? The following diagram explains the evolution of cloud computing: Benefits. It clearly classifies the Cloud’s deployment and service models, providing a full description of the Cloud services vendors. Better resource utilization: cloud platforms can coordinate resource utilization according to resource demand of the applications hosted in the cloud. The on-demand resource allocation mechanism in the cloud can improve resource utilization and change the experience of end users for improved responsiveness. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128014134000015, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128150320000184, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128014769000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128054673000065, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037737000012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037737000097, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124114548000012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123965356000028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128053959000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128038017000079, Privacy Preserving Data Utility Mining Architecture, Yousra Abdul Alsahib S. Aldeen, Mazleena Salleh, in, Toward Running Scientific Workflows in the Cloud, Optimized Cloud Resource Management and Scheduling, There are major benefits and advantages that are driving the widespread adoption of the, Bridging Ecology and Cloud: Transposing Ecological Perspective to Enable Better Cloud Autoscaling, Software Architecture for Big Data and the Cloud, Elastic autoscaling in the cloud has been an increasingly important research topic since the emergence of, Chapter 9: A Design Methodology for Developing Resilient Cloud Services—Cihan Tunc, Salim Hariri, and Abdella Battou, Cloud Computing is emerging as a new paradigm that aims to deliver computing as a utility.

cloud computing paradigms

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